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APA 7th Edition

About APA Style

American Psychological Association (APA) style is commonly used for citing references in student papers in science, social science and health courses, including criminal justice, psychology, nursing, physical therapy & occupational therapy. The purpose of documentation is to:

  • Identify (cite) other people’s ideas and information used within your essay or term paper
  • Indicate the authors or sources of these in a References list at the end of your paper

In-Text CItations

Use the author–date citation system to cite references in the text in APA Style. 

The format of the author element of the in-text citation changes depending on the number of authors and is abbreviated in some cases.The following table shows the basic in-text citation styles:

a Define the abbreviation for a group author only once in the text, choosing either the parenthetical or the narrative format. Thereafter, use the abbreviation for all mentions of the group in the text.

(Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th ed.)

NOTE: Page numbers must also be included in the in-text citation for any direct quotes taken from the source material.  


According to Luna (2020), there are "many risks associated with polypharmacy in adults over 65" (p. 304).

Caregivers for older adults "are often responsible for administering multiple prescription medications" (Sales & D'Agostino, 2020, p. 412).

More information from APA about IN-TEXT-CITATIONS 

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