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Physics 163 - How Things Work

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Use the  UC Library Catalog & WorldCat Discovery search to begin your research. 

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Narrow your search using the limiters on the left of the screen (Held at UC, Peer Reviewed, Publication Date and more). 

Journals for PHY 163


American Journal of PhysicsAJP publishes articles on the educational and cultural aspects of physics that are useful, interesting, and accessible to a diverse audience of physics students, educators, and researchers.  Use the SEARCH button at the top of the page to find articles.


DiscoverNewsmagazine of science devoted to the wonders, mysteries and challenges of modern science, written for the educated layperson. Select the an "Access Journal" link and enter your topic in "Search Within this Publication" to search.


Popular Science - Presents articles on products for homes, transportation and recreation, including automobiles, boats, tools & garden, electronic, photographic equipment and television. Select an "Access Journal" link and enter your topic in "Search Within this Publication" to search.


The Physics TeacherPublishes peer-reviewed papers on the teaching of introductory physics and on topics such as contemporary physics, applied physics, and the history of physics. Dedicated to strengthening the teaching of introductory physics at all levels, including secondary schools colleges and universities, Use the SEARCH button at the top of the page to find articles.

Research Databases

Search these databases for your topic:

Evaluating Sources from the Internet


  • Is the name of the author/creator on the page?
  • Are his/her credentials listed (occupation, years of experience, position or education)?
  • Is the author qualified to write on the given topic? Why?
  • Is there contact information, such as an email address, somewhere on the page?
  • Is there a link to a homepage?
  • If there is a link to a homepage, is it for an individual or for an organization?
  • If the author is with an organization, does it appear to support or sponsor the page?
  • What does the domain name/URL reveal about the source of the information, if anything?
  • If the owner is not identified, what can you tell about the origin of the site from the address?


Knowing the motive behind the page's creation can help you judge its content.

  • Who is the intended audience?
    • Scholarly audience or experts?
    • General public or novices?
  • If not stated, what do you think is the purpose of the site? Is the purpose to:
    • Inform or Teach?
    • Explain or Enlighten?
    • Persuade?
    • Sell a Product?


  • Is the information covered fact, opinion, or propaganda?
  • Is the author's point-of-view objective and impartial?
  • Is the language free of emotion-rousing words and bias?
  • Is the author affiliated with an organization?
  • Does the author's affiliation with an institution or organization appear to bias the information?
  • Does the content of the page have the official approval of the institution, organization, or company? 


  • Are the sources for factual information clearly listed so that the information can be verified?
  • Is it clear who has the ultimate responsibility for the accuracy of the content of the material?
  • Can you verify any of the information in independent sources or from your own knowledge?
  • Has the information been reviewed or refereed?
  • Is the information free of grammatical, spelling, or typographical errors?

Reliability and Credibility

  • Why should anyone believe information from this site?
  • Does the information appear to be valid and well-researched, or is it unsupported by evidence?
  • Are quotes and other strong assertions backed by sources that you could check through other means?
  • What institution (company, government, university, etc.) supports this information?
  • If it is an institution, have you heard of it before? Can you find more information about it?
  • Is there a non-Web equivalent of this material that would provide a way of verifying its legitimacy?


  • If timeliness of the information is important, is it kept up-to-date?
  • Is there an indication of when the site was last updated?


  • Are links related to the topic and useful to the purpose of the site?
  • Are links still current, or have they become dead ends?
  • What kinds of sources are linked?
  • Are the links evaluated or annotated in any way?
  • Note: The quality of web pages linked to the original web page may vary; therefore, you must always evaluate each web site independently.


  • Be very critical of any information you find on the Web and carefully examine each site.
  • Web pages are susceptible to both accidental and deliberate alteration, and may move or disappear with no notice.
  • Print out or download all pages you plan to use in your research so that your bibliography will be complete and accurate.
  • Are you sure the Web is where you want to be? It may take an hour to find the answer to a question on the Web that would take a reference librarian two minutes to find.

Referencing Web Sites

From the APA & Publication Manual:

If you cite multiple webpages from a website, create a reference for each. To mention a website in general, do not create a reference list entry or an in-text citation. Instead, include the name of the website in the text and provide the URL in parentheses.

For help in determining the author of a webpage or website reference, including how the author can be inferred from context or found on an “about us” or acknowledgments page, see Example 113 below.. Provide the most specific date possible: for example, a year, month, and day; year and month; or year only. When the author name and the site name are the same, omit the site name from the source element. DO not include a retrieval date unless the content is designed to change over time.

Use the template below to construct references for webpages or websites

(Please note that the examples below do not display the double-spacing or hanging indent required in an APA 7 paper.)

110. Webpage on a news website

Avramova, N. (2019, January 3). The secret to a long, happy, healthy life? Think age-positive. CNN.

Bologna, C. (2018, June 27). What happens to your mind and body when you feel homesick? HuffPost.

Parenthetical citations: (Avramova, 2019; Bologna, 2018)

Narrative citations: Avramova (2019) and Bologna (2018)

  • Use this format for articles published in online news sources (e.g., BBC News, Bloomberg, CNN, HuffPost, MSNBC, Reuters, Salon, Vox). 


111. Webpage on a website with a group author

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2018, January 23). People at high risk of developing flu-related complications

World Health Organization. (2018, March). Questions and answers on immunization and vaccine safety

Parenthetical citations: (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2018; World Health Organization, 2018)

Narrative citations: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2018) and World Health Organization (2018)

  • When the author and site name are the same, omit the site name from the source element.


112. Webpage on a website with an individual author

Martin Lillie, C. M. (2016, December 29). Be kind to yourself: How self-compassion can improve your resiliency. Mayo Clinic.

Parenthetical citation: (Martin Lillie, 2016)

Narrative citation: Martin Lillie (2016)


113. Webpage on a website with no date

Boddy, J., Neumann, T., Jennings, S., Morrow, V., Alderson, P., Rees, R., & Gibson, W. (n.d.). Ethics principles. The Research Ethics Guidebook: A Resource for Social Scientists.

National Nurses United. (n.d.). What employers should do to protect nurses from Zika

Parenthetical citations: (Boddy et al., n.d.; National Nurses United, n.d.)

Narrative citations: Boddy et al. (n.d.) and National Nurses United (n.d.)

  • In the Boddy et al. example, the authors are listed on the acknowledgments page of the site (see Section 9.7 for more on determining the author).
  • When the author and site name are the same, omit the site name from the source element.


114. Webpage on a website with a retrieval date

U.S. Census Bureau. (n.d.). U.S. and world population clock. U.S. Department of Commerce. Retrieved July 3, 2019, from

Parenthetical citation: (U.S. Census Bureau, n.d.)

Narrative citation: U.S. Census Bureau (n.d.)

  • When the author and site name are the same, omit the site name from the source element.
  • Include a retrieval date because the contents of the page are designed to change over time.