For each type of source in this guide, both the general form and an example will be provided.
The following format will be used:
References - entry that appears at the end of your paper.
In-Text Citation - entry that appears in the body of your paper after a direct quote or paraphrase.
Information on citing and several of the examples were drawn from the APA Manual (6th ed.).
Numbers in parentheses refer to specific pages in the manual.
Online help is available anytime via our AskUs 24/7 chat service:
by Chelsea Lee (APA Style Blogger)
Perhaps the most common question we get about APA Style is “How do I cite a website?” or “How do I cite something I found on a website?”
First, to cite a website in general, but not a specific document on that website, see this FAQ.
Once you’re at the level of citing a particular page or document, the key to writing the reference list entry is to determine what kind of content the page has. The Publication Manual reference examples in Chapter 7 are sorted by the type of content (e.g., journal article, e-book, newspaper story, blog post), not by the location of that content in a library or on the Internet. The Manual shows both print- and web-based references for the different types of content.
What seems to flummox our readers is what to do when the content doesn’t fall into an easily defined area. Sometimes the most you can say is that you're looking at information on a page—some kind of article, but not a journal article. To explore this idea, imagine the Internet as a fried egg. The yolk contains easier to categorize content like journal articles and e-books. In that runny, nebulous white you’ll find the harder to define content, like blog posts, lecture notes, or maps. To wit, the egg:
|Author, A. (date). Title of document [Format description]. Retrieved from http://URL|
That format description in brackets is used only when the format is something out of the ordinary, such as a blog post or lecture notes; otherwise, it's not necessary. Some other example format descriptions are listed on page 186 of the Publication Manual.
Examples of Online References
Here’s an example (a blog post) in which we have all four necessary pieces of information (also see Manual example #76):
|Freakonomics. (2010, October 29). E-ZPass is a life-saver (literally) [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://freakonomics.blogs.nytimes.com/2010/10/29/e-zpass-is-a-life-saver-literally/|
Sometimes, however, one or more of these four pieces is missing, such as when there is no identifiable author or no date. You can download a pdf chart here that lists all the permutations of information that might occur with an online reference and shows how to adapt the reference.
Here’s an example where no author is identified in this online news article:
|All 33 Chile miners freed in flawless rescue. (2010, October 13). Retrieved from http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/39625809/ns/world_news-americas/|
And here’s an example for a webpage where no date is identified:
|The College of William and Mary. (n.d.). College mission statement. Retrieved from http://www.wm.edu/about/administration/provost/mission/index.php|
This section will cover the following examples:
For youtube videos and audio podcasts, go to the Media tab.
For more examples and information, consult the APA Manual (6th ed.), located at the Information Desk in the Library.